Albright, P. (2006). Open educational resources: Open content for higher education. Retrieved: 14 June 2016.


Allen, E. I., and Seaman, J. (2014). Opening the curriculum: Open Educational Resources in U.S. higher education. Babson Survey Research Group. Retrieved: 20 May 2016.


Allen, N., Browne, D., Forward, M. L., Green, C., Tarkowski, A. (2015). Foundations for OER strategy development. Retrieved: 29 May 2016


Alexander, S., and Boud, D. (2001). Learners still learn from experience when online. In Teaching & learning online: new pedagogies for new technologies. J. Stephenson (Eds). (London: Kogan Page). pp. 3-15.


Anderson, T. (2013). Open access scholarly publications as OER. The international review of research in open and distributed learning. 14(2). Retrieved from


Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: An analytic tool for qualitative research. Qualitative Research 1(3): pp. 385-405.


Bagguley, P., & Hussain, Y. (2014). Negotiating mobility: South Asian women and higher education. Sociology 50(1): pp. 43–59


Bakhtin, M. (2004). Discourse in the novel. In Literary theory: An anthology (2nd ed.) J. Rivkin and M. Ryan (Eds). (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing): pp. 674-685.


Bakhtin, M. (2004). Rabelais and his world. In Literary theory: An anthology (2nd ed.) J. Rivkin and M. Ryan (Eds). (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing): pp. 686-692.


Baldick, Chris. (2008). The Oxford dictionary of literary terms. (Oxford: Oxford

University Press).


Barab, S., Arici. A., and Jackson, C. (2005) Eat your vegetables and do your homework: A design-based investigation of enjoyment and meaning in learning. Educational Technology, 45(1): pp. 15-20.


Beaty, L., Gibbs, G., and Morgan, A. (2005) Learning orientations and study contracts. In The experience of learning: Implications for teaching and studying in higher education. Marton, F., Hounsell, D., and Entwistle, N., (Eds). 3rd (internet) edition. (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment): pp. 72-86.


Benitez, J. (2013). The Socratic Method. Retrieved: 10 May 2016.


Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teaching for constructing learning. The Higher Education Academy. Retrieved: 20 September 2016.


Bliss, T.J., Robinson, J.T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2013). An OER coup: College teacher and student perceptions of open educational resources. Journal of interactive media in education. Retrieved 4 May 2016.


Bliss, T.J., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., and Thanos, K. (2013). The cost and quality of open textbooks: Perceptions of community college faculty and students. First Monday. 19(1). Retrieved 18 April 2016.


Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., Lack, K. A., Nygren, T. I. (2012). Interactive learning online at public universities: evidence from randomized trials. Retrieved 30 April 2016.


Braun, V., and Clarke, V. (2008). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, (3:2): pp. 77-101.


Bregoli, I. (2012). Effects of DMO coordination on destination brand identity: A mixed-method study on the city of Edinburgh. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2): pp. 212–224


Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G.J., Ronning, R.R., and Royce, R. (2004) (4th ed). Beliefs about intelligence and knowledge. In Cognitive psychology and instruction. (Upper Saddle River, N.J., Merrill): pp. 137-61.


Bryman, A. (2016). (5th ed.) Social research methods. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).


Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6(1): pp. 97–113.


Cadogan, M. (2012). Mike Cadogan on FOAM at ICEM 2012. Retrieved: 20 May 2016.


Cadogan, M. (2014). FOAM. Retrieved: 12 April 2016.


Clegg, S., Carter, C., Kornberger, M., Schweitzer. (2011). The context and emergence of strategic thinking. In Strategy: Theory & practice. S. Clegg, C. Carter, M. Kornberger and M. Schweitzer (Eds). (Los Angeles: Sage): pp. 3-44.

Crook, C. (1994). Human cognition as social grounded. In Computers and the collaborative experience of learning. (London, Routledge): pp. 30 – 51


Crook, C., and Light, P. (2002). Virtual society and the cultural practice of study. In Virtual society?: Technology, cyberbole, reality. S. Woolgar (Ed). (Oxford University Press): pp. 153 – 175.


Cullen, R., Harris, M. and Hill, R. (2012). Curriculum design in the instructional paradigm. In The Learner-centered curriculum: design and implementation. R. Cullen, M. Harris and R. Hill (Eds.) (San Francisco, Jossey Bass): pp. 23-44.


Di Sessa, A. (2000). Foundations of knowledge and learning. In Changing minds: Computers, learning, and literacy. (London, MIT Press): pp. 65-87.


Feldstein, A., Martin, M., Hudson, A., Warren, K., Hilton III, J., Wiley, D. (2012). Open textbooks and increased student access and outcomes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2(1). Retrieved from:


Fitzpatrick, K. (2011). Planned obsolescence: Publishing, technology, and the future of the academy. (New York: New York University Press).


Foucault, M. (1997). The archaeology of knowledge. Trans: A.M. Sheridan-Smith. (London: Tavistock Publications).


GMC. (2016). Reflecting on your practice. Retrieved: 10 May 2016.


Hargreaves, J. (2003). So how do you feel about that? Assessing reflective

Practice. Nurse Education Today (24): pp. 196–201


Hilton, J. III., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., Wiley, D. (2013). The adoption of open educational resources by one community college math department. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4). Retrieved from


Hilton, J. III and Laman., C. (2012). One college’s use of an open psychology textbook. Open Learning 27(3): pp. 265-272.


Jarvis, P., Holford, J., and Griffin, C. (2003). The theory and practice of learning. (Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer).


Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition. Retrieved: 3 April 2016


Johnstone, S. M. (2005). Open educational resources serve the world. Educase Quarterly (3). Retrieved: 20 April 2016.


Kolb, D. (1993). The process of experiential learning. In Culture and process of adult learning. M. Thorpe, R. Edwards, and A. Hanson (Eds). (London, Routledge): pp. 138-156.


Kruger, J., and Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77(6): pp. 1121-1134


Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching: a conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. (London, RoutledgeFalmer).


Lin, M. (2012). Twitter: The digital watercooler. Retrieved: 10 April 2016.


Lovett, M., Meyer, O., and Thille, C. (2008). The open learning initiative: Measuring the effectiveness of the OLI statistics course in accelerating student learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 1(13). Retrieved from


Masterman, L. and Wild, J. (2011). JISC open educational resource programme: Phase 2. OER impact study: Research report. Retrieved 16 April 2016.


Molesworth, M., Scullion, R., and Nixon, E. (2011). The marketization of higher education and the student as consumer. (London, Routledge). Retrieved from:


Moran, M., Seaman, J., and Tinti-Kane, H. (2011). Teaching, learning, and sharing: How today’s higher education faculty use social media. (Pearson Learning Solutions and the Babson Survey Research Group). (Boston: Pearson). Retrieved from:


Morgan, D.L. (1998). Practical strategies for combining qualitative and quantitative methods: Applications to health research. Qualitative Health Research, (8)3: pp. 362-376


Nicol D.J. and Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative Assessment and self-regulated learning: A theoretical model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2): pp. 199-218


Nickson, C. (2013). We don’t need no FOAM curriculum. Retrieved: 24 April 2016.


Nickson, C. P., and Cadogan, M.D. (2014). Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) for the emergency physician. Emergency Medicine Australasia (26): pp. 76–83


Norman, D. A. (1993). Experiencing the world. In Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. (Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.): pp. 19-42.


Onwuegbuzie, A.J., and Leech, N.L. (2009). Generalization practices in qualitative research: A mixed methods case study. Quality & Quantity, 44(5): pp. 881–892


Petrides, L., Jimes, C., Middleton-Detzner, C., Walling, J., and Weiss, S. (2011). Open textbooks adoption and use: implications for teachers and learners. Open Learning: The journal of open, distance and e-learning, 26(1): pp. 39-49.


Press Association. (2016). NHS facing a ‘tsunami’ of patients in A&E departments, experts warn, The Daily Mail, 27 September 2016. Retrieved from:


Pring, R. (2013). Philosophical research. In Research methods & methodologies in education. J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe and L.V. Hedges (Eds.) (London, Sage): pp. 153-162.


Rawson, M. (2000). Learning to learn: More than a skill set. Studies in Higher Education, 25(2): pp. 225-238.


Rezaie, S. (2016). ‪@srrezaie ‪@EMSwami@EM_Educator Disagree…FOAM does NOT cover everything in EM…usually sexy topics…but FOAM does add layers to knowledge. 19 April 2016. [Twitter]. Available at Retrieved 26 April 2016.


Robinson, T. J., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., Hilton, J. (2014). The impact of open textbooks on secondary science learning outcomes. Educational Researcher, 43, 341-351.


Roland, D. and Brazil, V. (2015). Top 10 ways to reconcile social media and ‘traditional’ education in emergency care. Emergency Medicine Journal (32): pp. 819-822.


Rovai, A. P. (2004). A constructivist approach to online college learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2): pp. 79-93


Ryan, G. and Bernard, H.R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods 15(1): pp. 85-109.


Sclater, N. (2009). The organisational impact of open educational resources. In Changing cultures in higher education: Moving ahead to future learning. U-D. Ehlers and D, Schneckenberg (Eds.) (London, Springer): pp. 485-497.


Scott, K. R., Hsu, C.H, Johnson, N.J., Mamtani, M., Conlon, L.W., DeRoos., F.J. (2014). Integration of social media in Emergency Medicine residency curriculum. Annals of Emergency Medicine. (64): 396-404.


Selwyn, N. (2011). Education and technology: Key issues and debates. (London, Bloomsbury).


Sharples, M., Adams, A., Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., & Whitelock, D. (2014). Innovating Pedagogy 2014: Open University Innovation Report 3. (Milton Keynes: The Open University).


Smith, M. K. (2000). Curriculum theory and practice. Retrieved: 2 April 2016.


Stefani, L. (2008) Planning teaching and learning: Curriculum design and development. In A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education H. Fry, Ketteridge, S. and S. Marshall (Eds.) (London, Routledge): pp. 8-26.


Tymms, P. (2013). Questionnaires. In Research methods & methodologies in education. J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe and L.V. Hedges (Eds.) (London, Sage): pp. 231-240.


Vartabedian, B. (2014). Why are there so many social ER docs? Retrieved: 12 April 2016.


Wald, H. S., Borkan, J. M., Scott, T., Julie, A., Reism, S. P. (2012). Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: Developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing. Academic Medicine 87(1): pp. 41-50


Wegerif, R. (2013). Dialogic: Education for the Internet Age. (Abingdon, Routledge).


Weller, M., De los Arcos, B., Farrow, R., Pitt, B., and McAndrew, P. (2015). The impact of OER on teaching and learning practice. Open Praxis 7(4): pp. 351-361.


Weller, M. (2010). Big and little OER, OpenED2010: Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, 2-4 November 2010, Barcelona, Spain.


Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)


Wiley, D. and Hilton, J. III. (2012). A preliminary examination of the cost savings and learning impacts of using open textbooks in middle and high school science classes. The international review of research in open and distributed learning, 13(3). Retrieved from:


Wiley, D. and Hilton, J. III. (2009). Openness, dynamic specialization, and the disaggregated future of higher education. International review of research in open and distance learning. 10(5). Retrieved from:


Williamson, B. (2015). Governing software: Networks, databases and algorithmic power in the digital governance of public education Learning, Media and Technology. 40(1): pp. 83-105.

List of illustrations, tables, figures & abbreviations
List of illustrations, tables, figures & abbreviations
Review of the literature
Review of the literature
Research design & method
Research design & method
Presentation and discussion of findings
Presentation and discussion of findings
Appendix: Questionnaire responses
Appendix: Questionnaire responses